Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a group of molecules that convey genetic information from DNA in the nucleus into the cytosol of the cell. There, this information is used by ribosomes to make protein. So mRNA’s that make specific proteins can be constructed and inserted into a cell, which has the machinery to make the specific protein. This forms the basis of mRNA therapy.
Not surprisingly, the concept is not new, but early attempts were unsuccessful for several reasons. These are now gradually being overcome, and mRNA therapy has become one of the most exciting new therapeutic developments seen for many years, with a wide range of applications. For example, it can be used to make vaccines far more quickly and effectively. The possibility of anti-cancer vaccines is also being explored.
Importantly, mRNA therapy provides solutions to some of the drawbacks of gene therapy.
Here is a useful review of mRNA therapy.
Next-Generation Therapeutics mRNA as a Novel Therapeutic Option for Single-Gene Disorders
Monogenic disorders, such as LSD’s, are prime candidates for mRNA therapy. There has been very encouraging progress in this area. Earlier this year, researchers from Translate Bio, Shire Pharmaceuticals and Biomere successfully treated a mouse model of Fabry disease using mRNA therapy, using the liver as the source of enzyme. Here is their paper
Improved Efficacy in a Fabry Disease Model Using a Systemic mRNA Liver Depot System as compared to ERT
It is probably only a matter of time before mRNA therapy is used to treat more LSD’s. For the time being, however, it is unclear whether it can be sued to treat LSD’s that affect the CNS. We shall have to wait and see.